Am J Clin Nutr. Epub Jun
Exact regional boundaries do not necessarily correspond to state borders or to other regional naming conventions. The model assigns each EMM region an emission performance goal in each compliance year fromand holds the final goal constant from onwards. For this analysis, the end-use sector models determine results of incremental demand-side energy efficiency activities by U.
Census division Figure 2 and then map the savings to Electricity Market Module regions. It does not consider any potential health or environmental benefits from reducing CO2 emissions from existing electric generating units covered by the proposed Clean Power Plan.
It is not a cost-benefit analysis. Additionally, this analysis represents other laws and regulations as modeled in NEMS.
The Reference case used as the starting point for this analysis is the Annual Energy Outlook AEO Reference case, which generally reflects laws and regulations in effect as of October EIA recognizes that projections over a year horizon are inherently uncertain and subject to changing policy objectives, supply disruptions, the emergence of disruptive technologies, and other future developments.
It is not possible for EIA to account for all uncertainties; for practical reasons this study examines a limited set of sensitivities through alternative scenario analysis. Additionally, there is considerable uncertainty and many challenges are involved in projecting the impacts of the proposed Clean Power Plan.
The Clean Power Plan is still a proposed rule as of the date of this report; the final rule may differ from the proposed rule in material ways. The regional compliance patterns presented in this analysis are model outputs from NEMS, while actual compliance mechanisms will be defined by state compliance proposals and may have different characteristics.
The construction of new generation to comply with the Clean Power Plan may necessitate upgrades to, and expansion of, electric power transmission systems; however, NEMS does not include transfer limits on intraregional power trade, nor does it contain a power-flow model or assess the reliability of bulk power transmission systems in detail.
NEMS does not consider how deliverability of natural gas to power plants using that fuel might be impacted by extreme cold conditions in regions where natural gas is a primary fuel for residential and commercial heating and local natural gas distribution companies typically have the first call on available firm natural gas transmission capacity.
The treatment of new nuclear generation not already under construction illustrates the challenges in this area. In developing its Base Policy case CPPEIA assumed that new nuclear generation beyond units already under construction would not receive the same treatment accorded under the rule to eligible renewable generation, which is counted in the denominator when calculating the average carbon dioxide intensity rate for generation from existing fossil-fuel units for compliance purposes.
However, EIA also considered an alternative case CPPNUC that accorded all new nuclear power the same treatment as new eligible renewables in the compliance calculation.
The proposed rule identifies new nuclear capacity as a potential source of carbon-free generation that can replace existing fossil-fueled power plants targeted under the program. EPA focuses on what it regards as the two most promising sources of additional nuclear output: States could allow generation from new, not-under-construction plants to displace generation and emissions from existing coal or natural gas plants that were accounted for in the emission rate computation.
While this displacement would, presumably, help states meet their emission rate goal, the generation from these "new" plants would not be directly reflected in the base generation used to compute the goal. For example, in the proposal, EPA explicitly asks for comment on "whether we [EPA] should include in the state goals an estimated amount of additional nuclear capacity whose construction is sufficiently likely to merit evaluation for potential inclusion in the goal-setting computation.Our analysis indicated that the effects of soy protein in lowering serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly related to the initial serum cholesterol values.
The analysis included 54 random and nonrandom controlled intervention studies published in the past decade (–). Results showed small but significant effects (average g = ) on all outcomes, except for motivational outcomes. The analysis included 54 random and nonrandom controlled intervention studies published in the past decade (–).
Results showed small but significant effects (average g = ) on all outcomes, except for motivational outcomes. We study the effects of Marangoni stresses on the flow in an evaporating sessile droplet, by extending a lubrication analysis and a finite element solution of the flow field in a drying droplet, developed earlier.1 The temperature distribution within the droplet is obtained from a solution of Laplace's equation, where quasi-steadiness and neglect of convection terms in the heat equation can be.
Analysis of the Effects of Microfinance on Poverty Reduction: Overview The poorest and poverty reduction have become the object of unprecedented attention at international summits in the ’s. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a step-by-step approach for identifying all possible failures in a design, a manufacturing or assembly process, or a product or service.
“Failure modes” means the ways, or modes, in which something might fail.