Limitations are set to emphasize the balance between the protection of the constitutional rights of the defendant and the right of the government to resort to various methods of solving the crime. The conduct of undercover operations are examples of means resorted to by the government to apprehend criminals. Undercover investigations can be done even in the absence of suspicion on the part of the police officer that a certain person committed, is committing or about to commit a crime. His method does not constitute entrapment because in the long line of jurisprudence it was ruled that the right to be free from investigation is not covered by any constitutional right.
Support Aeon Donate now As I was growing up in England in the latter half of the 20th century, the concept of intelligence loomed large. It was aspired to, debated and — most important of all — measured.
At the age of 11, tens of thousands of us all around the country were ushered into desk-lined Entrapment essays to take an IQ test known as the Plus.
|Support Aeon||Scotland[ edit ] In Scotland the main authority is the case of Brown v. HMA which stated that entrapment will occur when law enforcement officials cause an offense to be committed which would not have occurred had it not been for their involvement.|
The results of those few short hours would determine who would go to grammar school, to be prepared for university and the professions; who was destined for technical school and thence skilled work; and who would head to secondary modern school, to be drilled in the basics then sent out to a life of low-status manual labour.
The idea that intelligence could be quantified, like blood pressure or shoe size, was barely a century old when I took the test that would decide my place in the world.
To say that someone is or is not intelligent has never been merely a comment on their mental faculties. It is always also a judgment on what they are permitted to do.
Intelligence, in other words, is political. Sometimes, this sort of ranking is sensible: But it has a Entrapment essays side.
As well as determining what a person can do, their intelligence — or putative lack of it — has been used to decide what others can do to them. Throughout Western history, those deemed less intelligent have, as a consequence of that judgment, been colonised, enslaved, sterilised and murdered and indeed eaten, if we include non-human animals in our reckoning.
But the problem has taken an interesting 21st-century twist with the rise of Artificial Intelligence AI. In recent years, the progress being made in AI research has picked up significantly, and many experts believe that these breakthroughs will soon lead to more.
Pundits are by turn terrified and excited, sprinkling their Twitter feeds with Terminator references. To understand why we care and what we fear, we must understand intelligence as a political concept — and, in particular, its long history as a rationale for domination.
Nor does it have a direct translation into German or ancient Greek, two of the other great languages in the Western philosophical tradition. Indeed, they were obsessed with it, or more precisely a part of it: Although today many scholars advocate a much broader understanding of intelligence, reason remains a core part of it.
So when I talk about the role that intelligence has played historically, I mean to include this forebear.
The story of intelligence begins with Plato. In all his writings, he ascribes a very high value to thinking, declaring through the mouth of Socrates that the unexamined life is not worth living.
Plato emerged from a world steeped in myth and mysticism to claim something new: And so he launched the idea that the cleverest should rule over the rest — an intellectual meritocracy. This idea was revolutionary at the time.
Elsewhere, the governing classes were made up of inherited elites aristocracyor by those who believed they had received divine instruction theocracyor simply by the strongest tyranny. Aristotle was always the more practical, taxonomic kind of thinker.
He took the notion of the primacy of reason and used it to establish what he believed was a natural social hierarchy. In his book The Politics, he explains: So at the dawn of Western philosophy, we have intelligence identified with the European, educated, male human.
It becomes an argument for his right to dominate women, the lower classes, uncivilised peoples and non-human animals. While Plato argued for the supremacy of reason and placed it within a rather ungainly utopia, only one generation later, Aristotle presents the rule of the thinking man as obvious and natural.
Needless to say, more than 2, years later, the train of thought that these men set in motion has yet to be derailed.
The late Australian philosopher and conservationist Val Plumwood has argued that the giants of Greek philosophy set up a series of linked dualisms that continue to inform our thought. Together, they make relationships of domination, such as patriarchy or slavery, appear to be part of the natural order of things.
Cognition, he claimed, was the business of humanity. Descartes rendered nature literally mindless, and so devoid of intrinsic value — which thereby legitimated the guilt-free oppression of other species. The idea that intelligence defines humanity persisted into the Enlightenment.Entrapment is a defence when a criminal act is committed at the sole instigation of a police informer, but where the informer merely provides an opportunity to commit a crime which is voluntarily accepted by the defendant, the defence of entrapment is not available.
In this essay, it will be shown that state encouragement to commit a crime can make a difference to the ‘elementary proposition'. Firstly, I will compare two different rationales offered for the purpose of doctrine of entrapment.
Free Essays words | ( pages) | Preview Central Themes in The Graduate - Central Themes in The Graduate The themes of loneliness, isolation and entrapment are central to the narrative of the film The Graduate.
These essays are not intended to replace library research. They are here to show you what others think about a given subject, and to perhaps spark an interest or an idea in you. Essay on Entrapment Concept of Entrapment Entrapment is an affirmative defense that can be raised by the accused who committed the crime solely on the basis of persuasion and instigation from the law enforcement authority.
Although the ending of The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is somewhat ambiguous, it appears that the narrator has killed herself. While it could easily be argued that she did this simply because she was mentally disturbed, there are far too many statements made by Gilman’s narrator about the oppression of a woman for this to be an easy argument.