At first sight, these remarks may, I feel, be regarded as subtle, but the question is not whether they are subtle or the reverse, but whether they are true. Now, I not only believe them to be perfectly true, but to be well fitted to suggest matter for reflection to men of whom there are not a few who have sincere faith in the efficacy of a protectionist policy. The advocates of liberty and the defenders of restriction are both obliged to employ the expressions, dearness and cheapness.
Thomas Malthus Jane Austen lived most of her life in the county of Hampshire. Her father and two of her brothers were clergymen there. Another clergyman, living in the neighboring county of Surrey, was Thomas Malthus who was about the age of Jane's oldest brother.
Malthus was one of the founders of population theory and an early contributor to theories of economics. In spite of all the danger and turmoil, those were optimistic times Essay on dearness Jane Austen was living in, and Malthus was a pessimist.
For that reason alone, he must have inspired a great deal of discussion - only an optimist can bear to discuss the views of a pessimist at length.
Thomas Malthus William Godwin I seem to have come full circle at this point because, as it turns out, Malthus mentions William Godwin quite prominently in his essays. In fact, it is said that Malthus began his researches as an outgrowth of his debates with his father who was an ardent admirer of Godwin.
There is another tangency: Malthus frequently referred to Dr. Price, who was mentioned here as an inspiration and mentor for Mary Wollstonecraft. William Godwin was ten years older than Malthus; he was a London printer, and a working-class radical.
He was also a devout atheist. But their debate was not about religion; rather, it was about the potential and destiny of mankind.
In particular, the debate was about the limits to growth of human population numbers. I can say a few more things, parenthetically, about religion. First of all Godwin actually began as a clergyman ; in fact, he was the son and the grandson of clergymen.
Also, Malthus did not neglect religion in his essay on population; however, since that is not our focus here, those chapters are discussed elsewhere.
It is important to say some things about Malthus's father because Malthus himself is considered an arch conservative in some quarters. That's not unfair, but we mustn't think that he came from a conservative background, quite the contrary.
In fact, when Rousseau visited Britain, at Hume's invitation, the Malthus home was one they chose to visit together. That at a time when Thomas was too young to be aware.
In this interesting way then, Malthus was somewhat like Mary Shelley. Malthus became a clergyman; but, at Cambridge, he achieved the rank of "ninth wrangler", which means that he was the ninth-most proficient mathematics student of his year.
We are to be impressed - I am impressed. This explains why he couched his arguments in mathematical terms. However, you can take it from me that his mathematics are correct but unimpressive and unimportant to his main thesis.
I will confine my discussion of his mathematics to the final section of this topic ; so, if you are mathematically challenged, you can easily skip over the clutter at that point. I have seen no indication whatsoever that our Lady was ever interested in the debate and can see no reflection of those ideas in her novels.
However, the short study I am proposing will give us still another idea of the considerable intellectual ferment of her time. What Malthus called a second edition of the first essay was actually a significant expansion of his ideas and scholars recommend that we think of that as a "second essay", and I agree.
Later he published an encyclopedia article which is referred to as his Summary View of the Principle of Population. My observations are drawn from his First Essay and his Summary Jane Austen passed away in Malthus began by talking mathematics, by declaring that human populations grew geometrically grew by multiplication while subsistence could only grow arithmetically grow by addition.
What all that means, whether or not he was right about that, or whether or not he even thought correctly about the definition of "subsistence" are interesting discussions - interesting but perfectly irrelevant.Free Notes, MCQs, Online Test, Guess Papers and Past Papers for Class 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th.
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