List of courts of the United States From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The courts of the United States are closely linked hierarchical systems of courts at the federal and state levels. The federal courts form the judicial branch of the federal government of the United States and operate under the authority of the United States Constitution and federal law. The state and territorial courts of the individual U. Federal statutes that refer to the "courts of the United States" are referring only to the courts of the federal government, and not the courts of the individual states and counties.
Main content Court Role and Structure Federal courts hear cases involving the constitutionality of a law, cases involving the laws and treaties of the U.
The federal judiciary operates separately from the executive and legislative branches, but often works with them as the Constitution requires.
Federal laws are passed by Congress and signed by the President. The judicial branch decides the constitutionality of federal laws and resolves other disputes about federal laws. Courts decide what really happened and what should be done about it.
They decide whether a person committed a crime and what the punishment should be. Depending on the dispute or crime, some cases end up in the federal courts and some end up in state courts. Learn more about the different types of federal courts.
Article III of the U. Constitution created the Supreme Court and authorized Congress to pass laws establishing a system of lower courts. Learn more about the Supreme Court.
Courts of Appeals There are 13 appellate courts that sit below the U. Supreme Court, and they are called the U. The 94 federal judicial districts are organized into 12 regional circuits, each of which has a court of appeals. Appeals courts consist of three judges and do not use a jury. A court of appeals hears challenges to district court decisions from courts located within its circuit, as well as appeals from decisions of federal administrative agencies.
In addition, the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit has nationwide jurisdiction to hear appeals in specialized cases, such as those involving patent laws, and cases decided by the U.
Court of International Trade and the U. Court of Federal Claims. Learn more about the courts of appeals. These panels are a unit of the federal courts of appeals, and must be established by that circuit. Five circuits have established panels: District courts resolve disputes by determining the facts and applying legal principles to decide who is right.
Trial courts include the district judge who tries the case and a jury that decides the case. Magistrate judges assist district judges in preparing cases for trial.
They may also conduct trials in misdemeanor cases. There is at least one district court in each state, and the District of Columbia. Each district includes a U.
Four territories of the United States have U.
There are also two special trial courts. The Court of International Trade addresses cases involving international trade and customs laws. Bankruptcy Courts Federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction over bankruptcy cases involving personal, business, or farm bankruptcy.
This means a bankruptcy case cannot be filed in state court. Through the bankruptcy process, individuals or businesses that can no longer pay their creditors may either seek a court-supervised liquidation of their assets, or they may reorganize their financial affairs and work out a plan to pay their debts.
Article I Courts Congress created several Article I, or legislative courts, that do not have full judicial power. Judicial power is the authority to be the final decider in all questions of Constitutional law, all questions of federal law and to hear claims at the core of habeas corpus issues.
Article I Courts are:Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals. Lewis F. Powell Jr. Courthouse & Annex East Main Street, Suite Richmond, VA PHONE: () HOURS: am - p.m. M-F. The Old St. Louis Courthouse - often referred to as the "Dred Scott Courthouse" for its role in the Dred Scott litigation.
Records are unclear, but it is believed the Eighth Circuit sat in . Welcome.
Welcome to the website for United States Bankruptcy Appellate Panel for the First Circuit (“BAP”). This website is designed to provide convenient and easy access to information about the BAP and its operations.
The trial courts are U.S. district courts, followed by United States courts of appeals and then the Supreme Court of the United States. The judicial system, whether state or federal, begins with a court of first instance, whose work may be reviewed by an appellate court, and then ends at the court of last resort, which may review the work of the lower courts.
White Earth Nation and Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe to present tribal flags to Hennepin County District Court 11/16/ Representatives from the White Earth Nation and the Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe will present their tribal flags for installation in the newest courtroom at the Juvenile Justice Center that will be used for most cases under the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA).
November 15, - Public Notice for the Appointment of Magistrate Judge - The Judicial Conference of the United States has authorized the appointment of a fulltime United States Magistrate Judge for the Northern District of New York at Binghamton, New York.