The development history of tourism

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The development history of tourism

It can be considered demographically, as the flow of temporary leisure migration across international boundaries international tourism or within the boundaries of a given country domestic tourism.

It can be thought of institutionally, as the system of enterprises airlines, travel companies, touring agencies, hotels, resorts, guest houses, souvenir shops, restaurants, theme parks, and so on and organizations travel associations, local and national tourist authorities, and international tourist organizations that process and serve that flow.

Finally, it can be conceptualized socially, as the complex of attitudes, motivations, norms, and role models that regulate and shape that flow into a distinct institutional domain. Traveling for leisure was common in many historical and premodern societies.

Tourism as a socially recognized, separate institutional domain, however, emerged in western Europe only in the course of the nineteenth century. The Grand Tour of the British nobility and upper classes between the late sixteenth and the early nineteenth centuries was a form of secular pilgrimage to the centers of European antiquity and culture.

In its course, an expanding core of major attractions and amenities developed, which constituted the basis of the emergent modern tourist system. The development of modern tourism was made possible by major technological innovations in transportation, such as the steamship and the train, and later the car and the airplane, which facilitated the establishment of regular transportation services for large numbers of people.

The demand for tourist services, however, was provoked by the economic and social changes that followed the Industrial Revolution: Industrial pollution and urbanization separated people from as yet unspoiled nature; the strains of modern life created demands for rest and recreation; secularization and imperial conquests led to a broadened outlook on the world and a growing interest in remote lands and people.

The prosperous middle classes increasingly disposed of discretionary income, which enabled them to bear the costs of traveling, while the introduction of social benefits, such as paid vacations, enabled ever broader social strata to travel.

The introduction by Cook, inof the package tour, was followed by other innovations in the organization of travel, such as the formation of travel companies and touring agencies, airlines, and hotel chains, which made traveling fast and easy, even for people with limited cultural capital.

The principal expansion of tourism took place in the second part of the twentieth century, and especially from the s onward, with the emergence of mass tourism to popular destinations. Most citizens of affluent Western countries at the end of the century took at least one annual vacation abroad, and many took two or even more.

Tourism from the non-Western countries, especially Japanand, more recently, India and Chinaexpanded at an accelerating rate; experts predict that byone hundred million Chinese will be traveling abroad. The scope of domestic tourism cannot be ascertained, but it is estimated to be three or four times larger than that of international tourism, totaling about 2.

Tourism is one of the leading components of world trade, accounting for about 6 percent of world exports of goods and services.

The development history of tourism

The great majority of international border crossings remain concentrated in Europe, a phenomenon ensuing partly from the relatively large number and small size of European countries. Six European countries are among the ten leading global destinations.

France tops the list, with about 70 million visitors a year. As of global tourism is growing at about 4 percent annually, but the rate of its expansion to non-Western destinations is significantly higher than it is in the old European core.

This growth manifests a marked heliotropic tendency, a flow of tourists from the cold North to vacationing destinations in the warm South, particularly those around the Mediterranean, Caribbean, South Pacific, and Southeast Asian coasts.

Mass tourism is an important source of significant economic benefits, particularly to less-developed countries, but these are mostly unequally distributed. It has also generated undesirable and sometimes destructive environmental, social, and cultural consequences in popular destinations, which threaten the sustainability of local tourist industries.

Small countries, particularly island states, in which tourism became the dominant industry while other sectors of the economy remained underdeveloped, are often utterly dependent on tourism, and thus often exposed to financial risks created by far-away political and economic crises.

Most of these alternative tourisms, however, have been eventually absorbed by the tourist industry, which has adapted its services to the particular needs and preferences of alternative tourists.

More recently, rather than seeking alternatives to the industry, environmentalists and other concerned individuals have sought to collaborate with the industry to ascertain the sustainability of tourism development projects. They thus hope to prevent the environmental and social ravages that unconcerned and often speculative developments wrought in sensitive sites in the past.

Early commentators tended to disparage rather than analyze the phenomenon.

Tourism Development: Outline of Advantages and Disadvantages

Once its study was initiated, the principal issue of concern became the relationship between tourism and modernity and, later on, post-modernity. Dean MacCannell proposed a distinctly sociological perspective on tourism, by conceiving of the tourist as a modern individual who, alienated from his own society, travels in quest of authentic experiences in other places and other times—in pristine nature, unspoiled, simple communities, or the traces of great civilizations of the past.

Almatourism - Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development is an electronic journal of the Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Center for Advanced Studies in Tourism (CAST), Rimini is an innovative platform for study and research on culture and territorial development in the various disciplinary fields regarding tourism. ‎‎ The First International Congress of National Tourism Bodies, meeting in ‎London, decides to create a new international non-governmental organization to ‎replace the International Union of Official Tourist Propaganda Organizations ‎‎(IUOTPO), established in LATEST NEWS • County Conservation Newsletter with update on trail and park flood repairs - Click here • Check out the Annual Events page to see whats happening in !View Calendar • Looking for a new career? To search local jobs in Butler County.

Typologies of tourists and touristic experiences were proposed Cohen Authenticity was shown to be a socially constructed concept, rather than a given fact. Ning Wang distinguished between three kinds of authenticity: In a world allegedly devoid of originals, and dominated by simulacra Baudrillardthe quest for authenticity becomes senseless.

Sophisticated and reflective post-tourists are said to travel in quest of enjoyment of experiences that, while familiar, are of a higher quality, more abundant, more varied and cheaper than those available at home.

In the contemporary world, tourism often merges with other institutional domains, such as education study toursreligion pilgrimage-tourismsports extreme tourismand recently even medicine. Medical tourism, combining vacations with medical services, emerged in the last years of the twentieth century as a rapidly expanding phenomenon, with growing numbers of people from developed countries seeking a variety of treatments and checkups in developing ones.

They are pushed by the escalating costs of private medicine, and the lengthening of waiting lists for socialized medical services, in their countries of origin, and attracted by the high quality and relatively low costs of treatments offered by top hospitals in several developing countries, such as BrazilIndia, MalaysiaSingaporeThailandand Turkey.

Popular vacationing destinations, such as the islands of southern Thailand, offer package tours, combining vacations with medical checkups, cosmetic treatments, and even surgery. The phenomenon has led to an internal brain drain of qualified physicians from local to foreigner-oriented medical establishments, but it has also encouraged some who emigrated to the developed West to return to their home countries.Ocean County is home to one-third of the fabulous Jersey Shore miles of the Atlantic Ocean coastline with sandy beaches, inviting surf, fantastic fishing and great water sports.

The development history of tourism In the nineteenth century Global tourism industry has a large been improving since the nineteen century, when the earliest travellers were . The Autauga County Heritage Association was created in as a nonprofit organization to preserve the history and the heritage of Autauga County.

Its pride over the years has been the preservation and operation of Buena Vista, an ante-bellum home built circa Tourism Development: Outline of Advantages and Disadvantages. WE WOULD LOVE YOUR SUPPORT! Our content is provided free as a public service!

Tourism HISTORY [1] THE TOURIST INDUSTRY [2] SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO TOURISM [3] THE FUTURE OF TOURISM [4] BIBLIOGRAPHY [5] Tourism is a complex phenomenon that can be conceptualized on several levels.

A Tourism Development Board was set up in which had the power to advertise and market The Bahamas with an annual budget of three thousand pounds, this being the .

Uttarakhand Tourism Development Board | Department of Tourism, Government Of Uttarakhand, India