Subject matter experts perceive a small, but highly welcome, decline in Islamophobia in America during the period covered by this report. The reduction makes particular sense given that the rating interviews were conducted in September and October of
In German, Islamophobie fear and Islamfeindlichkeit hostility are used. The Scandinavian term Muslimhat literally means "hatred of Muslims".
Islamophobia reintroduces and reaffirms a global racial structure through which resource distribution disparities are maintained and extended.
In the Runnymede report, Islamophobia was defined as "an outlook or world-view involving an unfounded dread and dislike of Muslims, which results in practices of exclusion and discrimination. The symposium proposed a definition of Islamophobia which rejected the idea of Islamophobia as being the product of closed and open views of Islam, and focused on Islamophobia as performative which problematized Muslim agency and identity.
The symposium was an early attempt to bring insights from critical race theory, postcolonial and decolonial thought to bear on the question of Islamophobia. Nonetheless, he argued that the term is here to stay, and that it is important to define it precisely.
As with parallel concepts like homophobia or xenophobia, Islamophobia connotes a broader set of negative attitudes or emotions directed at individuals of groups because of perceived membership in a defined category.
New racism Several scholars consider Islamophobia to be a form of xenophobia or racism. A article in Journal of Sociology defines Islamophobia as anti-Muslim racism and a continuation of anti- Asiananti-Turkic and anti-Arab racism. Jocelyne Cesari writes that "academics are still debating the legitimacy of the term and questioning how it differs from other terms such as racism, anti-Islamism, anti-Muslimness, and anti-Semitism.
Diane Frost defines Islamophobia as anti-Muslim feeling and violence based on "race" or religion. He writes that the target of hostility in the modern era is not Islam and its tenets as much as it is Muslims, suggesting that a more accurate term would be "Anti-Muslimism". He also states that strains and types of prejudice against Islam and Muslims vary across different nations and cultures, which is not recognized in the Runnymede analysis, which was specifically about Muslims in Britain.
The experiment showed that their definition provided a tool for accurate differentiation.
Robin Richardson writes that in the English version of the book the word was not translated as "Islamophobia" but rather as "feelings inimical to Islam". Dahou Ezzerhouni has cited several other uses in French as early asand from to For some, the Muslim is the natural and irreconcilable enemy of the Christian and the European; Islam is the negation of civilization, and barbarism, bad faith and cruelty are the best one can expect from the Mohammedans.
Because radical Islam was a new topic, so was the hate towards Islam, which created the term "Islamaphobia. Islam is seen as a monolithic bloc, static and unresponsive to change. It is seen as separate and "other".
It does not have values in common with other cultures, is not affected by them and does not influence them. It is seen as inferior to the West. It is seen as barbaric, irrational, primitive, and sexist.
It is seen as violent, aggressive, threatening, supportive of terrorismand engaged in a clash of civilizations. Criticisms made of "the West" by Muslims are rejected out of hand. Hostility towards Islam is used to justify discriminatory practices towards Muslims and exclusion of Muslims from mainstream society.American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) from the American Public Health Association (APHA) Islamophobia and Public Health in the United States | AJPH | Vol.
Issue 11 Islamophobia and Public Health in the United States, an article from American Journal of Public Health, Vol Issue Islamophobia in the United States can be described as the unvalidated, highly speculative, affective distrust and hostility towards Muslims, Islam, and those perceived as following the religion and or appear as members of the religion and its associative groups.
Author Doug Saunders has drawn parallels between Islamophobia in the United States and its older discrimination and hate against Roman Catholics The European Islamophobie Report aims to enable policymakers as well as the public to discuss the issue of Islamophobia with the help of qualitative data.
It is the first report to cover a . Specifically, the dataset is anchored in U.S. public perceptions of American Muslims, hate crime incidents against Muslims and non-Muslims, and the institutionalization of Islamophobia.
The paper, which shows how race is endemic to Islamophobic incidents, appeals to the general U.S.
public, especially community members from religious, political, academic, civil rights, and social justice backgrounds. In a meeting, the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations, as well as the League of Arab States, a key partner, identified Islamophobia as an important area of concern.
Gallup developed a specific set of analyses, based on measurement of public opinions of majority and minority groups in multiple countries, to guide policymakers in their.
Nov 06, · The number of assaults against Muslims in the United States rose significantly between and , easily surpassing the modern peak reached in Religion September 18, Muslims more likely than Americans overall to say blacks lack equal rights in U.S.